The main indigenous tribes that inhabited the region were the Quimbayas, Ansermas, Quinchías, Chancos, Chamíes and Panches; the first conqueror to arrive in the region was Sebastián de Belalcázar in 1534; coming from the Cali, he traveled through the old Caldas to the La Vieja river, he continued his march along the Cauca river to lands that he baptized with the name of Anserma; later he arrived in Cartama, today Marmato (Caldas); Jorge Robledo founded the first town - Cartago - in 1540. The presence of black communities in Pereira dates back to the 16th century, when they were employed for mining work; the majority came from Valle del Cauca and the Pacific coast; Virginia's black community was founded in the 18th century.
In the same way, since the mid-nineteenth century the presence of a strong colonization from Antioquia has stood out, which has marked the development of this state. In the year 1536 the Risaraldense territory belonged to the Quito audience. When Gran Colombia was constituted in 1825, Risaralda became part of the state of Cundinamarca; in 1860 it belonged to the Sovereign State of Cauca and to the province of Gran Cauca in 1886, until the year 1905, when the state of Viejo Caldas was created, of which the current territories of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda were part. On December 1, 1966, through Law 70, the state of Risaralda was created.